Kurumlar Yoluyla Barış: Woodrow Wilson ve Paris Barış Konferansı
Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın yüzüncü yıldönümüne yaklaştığımız bu günlerde, savaşın ertesinde oluşturulan kurumlara dair retrospektif bir değerlendirme yapmak için zamanlama uygundur. Uluslararası kamuoyunda barışı ve işbirliğini güçlendirecek bir küresel düzeni oluşturma çabaları (İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın başlamasıyla nihayetinde başarısız da olsa) günümüz siyaseti için önemli dersler içermektedir. Bu çalışma, ABD’nin Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndaki rolüne, Versay anlaşmasının imzalanması sürecindeki diplomatik görüşmelere ve ABD Başkanı Woodrow Wilson’un ünlü idealizmine eleştirel bir şekilde yaklaşacaktır. Çalışma Birinci Dünya Savaşı’nın Avrupa’da nasıl başladığına dair tarihsel bir açıklamayla başlayarak, ABD’nin 1917’de savaşa girişini bir bağlama oturtacaktır. Woodrow Wilson esasen Amerika’nın tarafsızlığı yönünde çaba gösterdiği ve ABD kamuoyu Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na kadar izolasyonizmi desteklediği için, Wilson’un başkanlığı ABD dış politikasında müdahaleciliğe ve Soğuk Savaş sonrası dönemdeki dünya jandarmalığına gidiş anlamında tarihi bir kırılma dönemidir. Savaşın ve Amerika’nın rolünü değerlendirmek Woodrow Wilson’ın kendi ülkesinde karşılaştığı asimetrik tepkiyi anlamaya yardımcı olacaktır. ABD’de Wilson’ın dış politika karnesi Meksika’ya yapılan müdahale, Avrupa’daki savaşa ilk başta mesafeli kalma çabası ve savaştan sonra barışı tesis etme yönündeki nafile çabalarıyla hatırlanmaktadır. Wilson ABD’nin savaşa katılması için ünlü “dünyayı demokrasi için daha güvenli kılmak” çağrısıyla iç politikada destek toplamıştır. O dönemde, dış politika yapımında bu tür açıkça idealist bir retorik kullanmak yeni bir hamleydi, bugün ise çok daha normalleşmiş durumdadır. Birinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra, Wilson’ın Kongre ile mücadelesi ve ABD’nin Milletler Cemiyeti’ne girmemesi yakın zamanlardaki ABD yönetimleriyle Kongre arasındaki çatışmaları hatırlatmakta ve bu durum muhtemelen İkinci Dünya Savaşı’nın çıkışına da katkıda bulunmuştur. Çatışmalı bir dış politika ortamında ABD kamuoyu bir kez daha izolasyonizme yöneldikçe, Birinci Dünya Savaşı ve etrafında kurulan söylemlerin eleştirel bir değerlendirmesi günümüzün uluslararası düzeni açısından da dikkat çekici sorular ortaya koymaktadır. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)
Initiating Turkish Economic Activity in the Middle East: Politicians or Businessmen?
Given the central participation of both private business interests and the government in foreign economic engagement, this paper seeks to identify the driving force behind Turkey’s increased economic activity in the Middle East. Focusing on Turkey’s relationship with the region through an economic lens clarifies the current balance maintained between foreign policy officials and representatives of the private sector. The paper presents an analysis based on literature review and relevant policy concepts to provide a theoretical framework for defining Turkey’s relationship with the Middle East. Under this framework the paper provides an overview of these historically-rooted relations, with a focus on the gradual but significant policy shift that occurred with the AKP’s rise to power. A retrospective analysis of this shift reveals that the Turkish government did indeed initiate Turkey’s economic ties in the Middle East, with business interests reinforcing and continuing to push forth these trends. Such an analysis allows for a more holistic contextualization and evaluation the AKP’s current policies, especially as recent turmoil and political developments in the Middle East call into question the long-term viability of Turkey’s economic stakes in the region. Indeed, understanding Turkey’s motives is imperative in identifying cogent policy implications and relevant conclusions. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)
Does the US Approach Differ Towards the EU and Turkey’s Membership to the EU?
The relationship between United States and the European Union, one which consists of two economic, political and military giants, is arguably the most important bilateral relationship in the world. The issues in this relationship involves arguably covers the whole spectrum of the politics, including topics as disparate as energy, social development, international trade, and environmental issues. This relationship also occasionally involves issues related to third parties, from neighbors and political allies, to neutral or unimportant actors who do not have direct influence for either side.
One of the most important and frequently-discussed of these parties in the relationship is Turkey. Turkey has a unique position between Southeast Europe and the Middle East and Caucasus, in addition to another of other important characteristics including its Muslim majority population, secular constitution and political system, and close institutional ties to the West via its membership in the Council of Europe, NATO, European Court of Human Rights as well as its membership in various other European institutions.
This paper aims to scrutinize in detail the changing trends of American foreign policy and the ways in which it has affected and shaped the relationship between Turkey and the European Union. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)
Relations Between Turkey and Iran After the Arab Spring: The Extent of a Pragmatic Rapprochement
This article is attempting to find an answer to the questions of “How are Turkish and Iranian relations affected by the recent happenings in the Middle East and what is the possible extent of pragmatic rapprochement?” It is believed that both countries’ contradicting ways of understanding the reasons and the outcomes of the Arab Spring together with several regional issues have put Turkey and Iran into a competitive atmosphere. However, due to the interdependence between Turkey and Iran together with the regional balances, a severed relationship between these particular countries is not expected. But although there is a considerable enhancement in Turkish-Iranian relations since 2002 encouraged both by the current Turkish government and regional as well as international atmosphere, it is not free from any tensions and therefore it would be miscalculating to claim that both countries have formed matured cooperation that is very strong. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)
NATO’s Missile Defense Shield: Turkey’s Western Preferences
As a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Turkey agreed to deploy a missile defense radar system in its southern region of Malatya in 2011. In the context of geopolitical developments before and after this pivotal year -namely, Turkey’s reorientation towards the Middle East, the Arab Awakening, and most recently, the Iranian nuclear deal of 2013- Turkey’s decision had far-reaching regional effects. To offer policy implications surrounding this decision, this paper analyzes the interaction between such political developments and the existence of this shield system within Turkey’s borders.
Turkey’s decision to allow installation of the NATO defense shield came amid Western suspicions of Iran’s growing military might, nuclear program, and missile technology. Since Turkish foreign policy ever since the turn of the 21st century has shifted increasingly towards its neighbors in the Middle East, the installation and its hostile reception in Iran seemed out of sync with its foreign policy shift. Subsequently, examining the Turkish decision in light of recent regional developments provides insight about Turkey’s increasingly proactive role as not only a regional, but a global actor.
Such examination includes an analysis of Turkey’s global environment through a foreign policy lens both before and after its decision to host the NATO defense shield. Paired with the technical reasons why Iran feels threatened by the missile deployment, such analysis shows that despite the growing polarity in Turkey’s neighborhood, Turkey’s NATO membership and nuanced view of international affairs makes it an important mediator moving forward in Iranian rapprochement with the West. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)
Regional Competition in the Middle East in the 21st Century: Turkey and Egypt
The Middle East has been a venue of conflict and power struggle for decades and there are a number of contenders in this conflict. On the one hand, Egypt has traditionally been recognized as a leading country in the region. On the other hand, Turkey has emerged as a regional actor with clear interests in Middle Eastern politics thanks to its hard and soft power capabilities. Particularly, the Justice and Development Party (JDP) era has prioritized Turkish foreign policy towards the Middle East with strong reference to regional leadership. This paper will analyze the leadership competition between Turkey and Egypt on the basis of shared vs. competing economic and ideological interests. The economic interests would include relative size of these countries’ economy towards their neighbors and rivals, their economic interdependence with the region and their economic capabilities that would enable them to lead large scale projects within their territories and the whole region, and finally the military expenditure. The ideological interests, on the other hand, are an important parameter on the leadership competition in the Middle East. Combining the potential effects of these issues, this paper will attempt to shed light on the current situation and will give hints on policy implications regarding the leadership competition in the region. (Tam metin için tıklayınız.)